Patent a software

Patent a software

Software je pro odborníka v oboru sled instrukcí, který vykonává počítač anebo jakýkoliv stroj. Z hlediska Patentového zákona (českého i evropského) je definice stejná, avšak v přesném znění Patentového zákona se označuje sled instrukcí jako „počítačový program“. Právní ochranu softwaru v Evropě, mimo jiné, poskytuje Autorský zákon. Obvykle bývá součástí softwaru i GUI (graphical user interface), který lze chránit průmyslovým vzorem.

Výjimky z patentovatelnosti v Evropě

Patentový zákon (český i evropský) však explicitně vylučuje udělení patentu na počítačový program jako takového, neboť se ve smyslu tohoto zákona nejedná o vynález.

Znění „jako takového“ se interpretuje v souvislosti s počítačovým programem jako samotný počítačový program, který obsahuje sled instrukcí (událostí), které se vykonávají podle jistého algoritmu. Samotný sled instrukcí a algoritmů se tedy nepovažuje za vynález a Úřady na ně neposkytují ochranu ve formě patentu.

Obdobně se k pojmu počítačového programu a vyloučení staví i Americký patentový úřad. Podle amerického (USA) patentového zákona neexistují žádné konkrétní výjimky pro software nebo metody implementované jako počítačový software nebo související produkty. Počítačové programy jsou patentovatelné pouze tehdy, pokud to, co se nárokuje, představuje „věcnou podstatu“ a splňuje požadavky na způsob výroby. Patent na počítačový program se však rovněž neuděluje na pouhá schémata (algoritmy), abstraktní myšlenky nebo pouhé informace.

Překonání výjímky patentovatelnosti

Výše uvedené výjímky lze překonat správnou formulací patentových nároků. Pokud se vynález formuluje ve formě počítačem realizovaného vynálezu, alias softwarového vynálezu, jako způsob, zařízení nebo produkt, nejedná se tedy o počítačový program jako takový. Tudíž, počítačový program – sled instrukcí – jako součást způsobu je již patentovatelný. Obdobně zařízení, které obsahuje počítačový program je rovněž patentovatelný a produkt vytvořený za pomocí počítačového programu je rovněž patentovatelný.

Metodické pokyny Evropského patentového úřadu explicitně definují „počítačem realizovaný vynález“ jako vynález, který zahrnuje počítače, počítačové sítě nebo jiné programovatelné přístroje, přičemž alespoň jeden znak je realizován pomocí počítačového programu. Nároky počítačem realizovaného vynálezu by měly definovat všechny funkce, které jsou nezbytné pro technický účinek procesu, který má počítačový program provádět při jeho spuštění. V popisu mohou být také uvedeny krátké výňatky z programů.

Počítačem realizované vynálezy tak musí překonat dvě kritéria, absolutní a relativní kritéria pro získání patentu. Absolutní kritérium se týká způsobilosti vynálezu získat patent, tj. nárok popisuje vynález, který je průmyslově využitelný a relativní kritéria novosti a vynálezecké činnosti.

O překonání absolutního kritéria rovněž hovoří směrnice EU 2005/C 144 E/02.

Příklad z praxe

Rozhodnutí odvolacího orgánu Úřadu průmyslového vlastnictví

Úřad průmyslového vlastnictví potvrdil v rozhodnutí rozkladu značky PV-2002-2460, že podle ustanovení § 3 odst. 2 písm. c) zákona č. 527/1990 Sb. se za vynález nepovažují plány, pravidla a způsoby vykonávání duševní činnosti, hraní her nebo vykonávání obchodní činnosti, jakož i programy počítačů, a podle ustanovení § 3 odst. 2 písm. d) téhož zákona se za vynález nepovažuje podávání informací. Odvolací orgán zdůraznil, že v ustanovení § 3 odst. 3 výše uvedeného zákona je konkretizováno, že patentovatelnost předmětů nebo činností uvedených v odstavci 2 je vyloučena za předpokladu, že se přihláška nebo patent týkají pouze těchto předmětů nebo činností.

V patentových nárocích napadeného patentu je popsán způsob shromažďování, evidence a zpřístupnění informací o zdravotní péči a jejích výsledcích a jeho použití, zahrnující způsob ovládání síťového počítačového systému sestávajícího z centrálního počítačového paměťového zařízení, více počítačových paměťových zařízení zdravotnického pracovníka a zdravotnického zařízení a více počítačových paměťových zařízení klienta, navzájem propojených ve veřejné komunikační síti a/nebo komunikačními spoji.

Implementace způsobu podle vynálezu musí vyžadovat technickou úvahu. Nevyhnutelnost takových technických úvah musí zahrnovat existenci technického problému, který nárokovaný vynález řeší a nárokuje v patentových nárocích. Vynález definovaný v patentových nárocích tak vyžaduje použití technické úvahy – např. vytvoření „uživatelského rozhraní“.

Odvolací orgán konstatoval, že ve výše uvedeném případě je takto definovaný vynález přípustný.

Odvolací orgán dále konstatoval, že

Je zároveň nesporné, že způsob, který vynález, který je bezprostředně vázaný na síťový počítačový systém může obsahovat netechnické znaky, např. „shromažďování, evidence a zpřístupnění informací o zdravotní péči a jejích výsledcích“. Nicméně, vynález obsahující alespoň jeden znak mající technický charakter je vynálezem ve smyslu Patentového zákona, nárok je tedy přípustný.


Zajištění technologického náskoku v oblasti umělé inteligence, získání patentu na softwarový vynález, alias počítačem realizovaný vynález, je vhodnou volbou obrany proti konkurenci.

V případě dotazů nás neváhejte kontaktovat, nebo přímo objednat naše služby v přípravě podání patentové přihlášky na softwarový vynález.

 

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